• Large Scale Commercial Farming and its Environmental impacts: The Case of Gambella Regional State
    Vol 1 No 1 (2019)

    In the past two decades small-scale farmers were seen as the catalysts of the country’s economy, and agricultural development policies of Ethiopia mainly focused on smallholder farmers. However, the government claimed that smallholder-focused development strategies were proved to have limited economic and social success in Ethiopia, and it became necessary to introduce large-scale commercial agriculture (De Zoyas 2013 in Mesay, 2015). To this end, the government has particularly encouraged export-oriented investments in order to boost foreign exchange earnings and trade, and ultimately to finance capital imports to enhance industrialization (MoFED, 2006).

  • COFFEE RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENTS, THEIR BACKSTOPPING TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SUB-SECTOR IN ETHIOPIA AND PRODUCTIVITY GAP BETWEEN FARM AND RESEARCH: A Review
    Vol 3 No 1 (2020)

    Literature shows more of the world population turns to coffee consumption particularly Latin America, India
    and China. Demand for the beverage is estimated to increase by nearly 25% over the coming five years.
    On the other hand, global coffee production and supply is very unlikely to increase due to many factors.
    To fill the expected gap between production and consumption, Ethiopia has a better opportunity. Current
    productivity per hectare is about 647 kg which is lower than in many growing countries. Eventually, the
    research developed 42 coffee verities among which 35 are selections and seven of them are hybrids. As
    different coffee husbandry technologies enable to boost coffee production and productivity many agronomic
    practices are generated and recommended along with coffee varieties. Major coffee diseases like (Coffee
    Berry Disease, Coffee Wilt Disease and Coffee Leaf Rust) management options are also the knowledge
    developed by research. Integrated weed management practice developed to mitigate weed infestation from
    coffee farms enables us to reduce 65% yield loss. Among coffee quality maintenance technologies developed
    is altitude based fermentation time. For altitudes 1200, 1200-1500, and >1800 meter above sea level
    recommended 24, 24-48 and 48-72 hours fermentation period respectively. Improved coffee seed production
    also remains the responsibility of the research. In this regard, until now, about 300,000 kg of improved seed
    supplied in which estimated to cover about 300,000 hectares of land. Despite these all technologies, there
    is a wide productivity gap among the research, modern plantation, and the national average productivity.
    Even though developed technologies made considerable contributions to coffee production, productivity, and
    quality improvement in Ethiopia a lot is remaining. The national average productivity only reached 30%
    of the research results. This big gap in productivity range requires a wide utilization of research output
    by development is crucial. Actually, this demands: (1) Aggressive scaling-up of proven technologies (2)
    Managing coffee stands through mobilizing coffee sector rehabilitation and wide utilization of technologies
    (3) Addressing research in unaddressed areas (4) Establish & support sustainable coffee seed system (5)
    Establish viable extension system and consolidate the relationship of research and extension so that existing
    technology can be disseminated. In general, the major interest of this review paper is to bold out the outputs
    of existing national coffee research and to clearly show the gap between research results and development
    wing. On the other hand, it will try to show how concerted efforts should be made to improve both the volume
    and quality of coffee to the expected result to increased export revenue to the country.

  • Mass flowering and death of Arundinaria alpina (highland bamboo) impact on livelihood of rural community: the case of Gedeo Zone, Southern Ethiopia.
    Vol 2 No 1 (2019)

    Ethiopia owns the largest coverage of bamboos in Africa that sums up to more than 1 million
    hectares. This constitutes about 67% of the total area of bamboo in Africa. Bamboo plays a
    crucial role in the livelihood of the local people of Gedeo zone, south Ethiopia. However, the mass
    flowering and mass death currently hit the bamboo forest of the zone and affected both the people
    livelihood and the ecosystem of the area. Thus, this paper tries to highlight the consequences of
    mass flowering of bamboo forest on the livelihood of rural community of the zone. Two districts
    were purposively selected and 120 sample households were chosen randomly for data collection.
    Both primary and secondary data were deployed to answer the stipulated objectives. Extensive
    field observation, questionnaires, and group discussions were held to gather the primary data.
    Additionally, documents and other available materials were also used as a secondary data source.
    Descriptive statistics was conducted to analyze quantitative socio-economic data. Qualitative data
    were summarized by condensing the collected information. The result of the study indicated that,
    the local people have experiences of bamboo production using their indigenous knowledge. Lack
    of awareness about the time of mass flowering and death exacerbated the incident. There was
    no management plan prepared and used in the bamboo forest area. The flowering interval was
    estimated and the coming time of flowering and death is expected to be after 75-80 years. Massive
    socio-economic and ecological problems were also observed after mass flowering and subsequent
    seed setting. Hence, now it is time to search for different strategies to stop or to reduce the influences
    of mass flowering and death of bamboo in the area.

  • The Role of Moisture Schemes in Regional Climate Modeling of Precipitation over the Horn of Africa
    Vol 2 No 1 (2019)

    This study aims to evaluate the performance of the latest Regional Climate Model version
    4 (RegCM4) to simulate the precipitation over the Horn of Africa. Although there are
    several aspects in which the model can be improved, the focus of this study is to tackle the
    problem of its moisture scheme. RegCM4 moisture scheme has fourteen moisture scheme
    parameters, which can be tuned within the allowed physical limits. Each of the fourteen
    moisture parameters have been varied around the current default setting and over 80
    model runs have been performed for a domain defined by 60km resolution, 18 vertical
    levels covering spatially the whole Africa and the major circulation patterns that derive
    climate over the region. We have found physical sound set of moisture scheme parameters
    to be used in the fourteen moisture scheme parameters that have significantly reduced
    bias in RegCM4 precipitation; improved correlation of RegCM4 precipitation with respect
    GPCP and CMAP; and captured seasonal and interannual variations over most of the 12
    delineated homogeneous regions of Horn of Africa.

  • COFFEE RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENTS, THEIR BACKSTOPPING TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SUB-SECTOR IN ETHIOPIA AND PRODUCTIVITY GAP BETWEEN FARM AND RESEARCH: A Review
    Vol 3 No 1 (2020)

    Literature shows more of the world population turns to coffee consumption particularly Latin America, India
    and China. Demand for the beverage is estimated to increase by nearly 25% over the coming five years.
    On the other hand, global coffee production and supply is very unlikely to increase due to many factors.
    To fill the expected gap between production and consumption, Ethiopia has a better opportunity. Current
    productivity per hectare is about 647 kg which is lower than in many growing countries. Eventually, the
    research developed 42 coffee verities among which 35 are selections and seven of them are hybrids. As
    different coffee husbandry technologies enable to boost coffee production and productivity many agronomic
    practices are generated and recommended along with coffee varieties. Major coffee diseases like (Coffee
    Berry Disease, Coffee Wilt Disease and Coffee Leaf Rust) management options are also the knowledge
    developed by research. Integrated weed management practice developed to mitigate weed infestation from
    coffee farms enables us to reduce 65% yield loss. Among coffee quality maintenance technologies developed
    is altitude based fermentation time. For altitudes 1200, 1200-1500, and >1800 meter above sea level
    recommended 24, 24-48 and 48-72 hours fermentation period respectively. Improved coffee seed production
    also remains the responsibility of the research. In this regard, until now, about 300,000 kg of improved seed
    supplied in which estimated to cover about 300,000 hectares of land. Despite these all technologies, there
    is a wide productivity gap among the research, modern plantation, and the national average productivity.
    Even though developed technologies made considerable contributions to coffee production, productivity, and
    quality improvement in Ethiopia a lot is remaining. The national average productivity only reached 30%
    of the research results. This big gap in productivity range requires a wide utilization of research output
    by development is crucial. Actually, this demands: (1) Aggressive scaling-up of proven technologies (2)
    Managing coffee stands through mobilizing coffee sector rehabilitation and wide utilization of technologies
    (3) Addressing research in unaddressed areas (4) Establish & support sustainable coffee seed system (5)
    Establish viable extension system and consolidate the relationship of research and extension so that existing
    technology can be disseminated. In general, the major interest of this review paper is to bold out the outputs
    of existing national coffee research and to clearly show the gap between research results and development
    wing. On the other hand, it will try to show how concerted efforts should be made to improve both the volume
    and quality of coffee to the expected result to increased export revenue to the country.

  • EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF PARTHENIUM (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) WEED DENSITY ON THE VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND GRAIN YIELD OF TEFF (Eragrostis tef Zucc. Trotter) IN SHEWA-ROBIT DISTRICT, NORTH SHEWA, ETHIOPIA
    Vol 2 No 2 (2019)

    Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), is one of the top alien invasive weed species in more than 40 countries, including Ethiopia. It infests several crops and causes significant yield losses, the extent of which depends, among others, on the density of weed and characteristics of crop species. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) weed density on vegetative growth and grain yield of teff (Eragrostis tef Zucc. Trotter) using field experiment. Factorial combination of two traditional teff landraces namely Nech and Seregegna; and three levels of weed density (0, 5% and 10%) were used in the study. The experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. To determine the extent of growth and yield loss caused by weed treatment, the differences between the means recorded for each trait at each treatment and weed free control plot were compared using Two-way ANOVA and the Tukey`s significant difference test. The results obtained in the study revealed that there was statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) on the effect of Parthenium weed density on vegetative growth and grain yield of the two landraces of teff studied. However, the difference between landraces was not significant. The mean maximum grain yield/plot (738.5 ± 49.2 gram) was obtained from control plot and the lowest grain yield/plot (482.2 ± 57.8 gram) was recorded from 10% Parthenium weed density treatment plot, which makes percent yield loss of 34.6% compared to the control plot. This in turn corresponds to a yield loss of 640.75 kg/ha. In general, the observed yield loss with increasing density of weed might attribute to reduction in availability of moisture, soil nutrients and light. Thus, there is a need for proper management of Parthenium weed starting from early period of seedling emergence of the test crop.

  • Asian Vitis Species for Modern Grapevine Breeding and Wine Industry: A Review
    Vol 1 No 4 (2019)

    Viticulture is one of the major horticultural industries of the world, with the area of grapevines cultivated exceeding 7.9 million hectare. The grapevines belong to the family Vitaceae, which are mostly woody, tree-climbing vines, though a few have a shrubby growth habit. They have tendrils and inflorescences opposite the leaves. The grapevine fruit is used in a wide variety of products, ranging through fresh fruit, preserves, juice, wine and raisins. This review paper attempts to address a potential Asian Vitis species, as there was no sufficient information and most of the species were ignored in modern viticulture and enology. Vitis amurensis, Vitis heyneana, Vitis davidii, and Vitis yeshanensis are the most common and most popular species in Asia. The Vitis genus contains more than 70 species, with centres of origin in South Europe, Asia Minor, East Asia, and North and Central America. Asia is one of the major gene centres of origin for more than 37 Vitis species. Asian Vitis species have strong resistance against such diseases like Anthracnose, Ripe Rot, Powdery Mildew, Crown Gall and they can withstand environmental stress. Their germplasms can easily be crossed with V. vinifera and American Vitis species. Additionally, the berries of Asian wild Vitis species do not have the undesirable “foxy” flavour compounds commonly existing in the berries of American Vitis species. As the European grapevines are not well tolerant to different diseases, Asian wild Vitis have captured scientists and breeders’ attention in the grapevine breeding and wine industry.

  • THE ROLE OF PARTICIPATORY FOREST MANAGEMENT IN SUSTAINING RURAL LIVELIHOOD AND FOREST CONDITIONS IN SHEKO FOREST, SOUTHWESTERN ETHIOPIA
    Vol 3 No 1 (2020)

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management highlighting the inclusion of communities have
    been promoted to halt deforestation and environmental degradation. The participatory Forest Management
    (PFM) scheme was introduced as an alternative tool to enhance sustainable forest management through
    community participation during the early 1990s. This study was conducted in the Sheko forest to examine the
    role of PFM on the livelihoods of rural community and forest conditions. Forest inventory and socioeconomic
    surveys were conducted to collect data through involving 95 households and 27 sample plots. The data
    were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The result indicated that PFM has positive
    impacts on both forest conditions and rural livelihoods. Income derived from forest products was 89.06%.
    Of this71.76% was obtained from forest coffee collection while the remaining was shared between honey
    production and wild spice collections. A total of 55 woody plant species belonging to 34 families were
    recorded from the three forest zones. Of this, 45 were found within unmanaged dense forest zone, 41 in
    semi-forest coffee-based agroforestry zone and, 21 in the open zone agroforestry. Overall Shannon diversity
    index was 3.25 in unmanaged dense forest, 2.89 in semi-forest coffee-based agroforestry and, 1.9 in open
    zone agroforestry. Higher seedling and sapling densities were recorded under unmanaged forest followed
    by open zone agroforestry and semi-forest coffee-based agroforestry. The lower number of seedling and
    sapling under semi-forest coffee-based agroforestry could be attributed to frequent weeding and thinning
    activities. Concerning the diameter distribution, the unmanaged forest zone displayed uniform distribution
    and semi-forest coffee-based agroforestry zones displayed a J shaped distribution while the open zone
    displayed an inverted J shaped distribution suggesting a better regeneration of tree in the unmanaged forest
    and open zone agroforestry while in semi-forest coffee-based agroforestry zones intervention was required to
    improve poor regeneration of tree species.

  • Talking Plants: Communication and Signaling via Volatiles
    Vol 2 No 1 (2019)

    There is an urgent need for new sustainable solutions to support plants in facing
    current environmental challenges. In particular, strengthening of productivity and
    food security needs sustainable exploitation of natural resources and metabolites.
    In this review, we fetch the attention to the agronomic potential of volatile organic
    compounds (VOCs) emitted from plants, as a natural and eco-friendly solution to
    defend from stresses and to enhance crop production. Plants defense by emitting
    volatile organic compounds communicate with herbivore-attacked neighbors
    to activate defenses before being attacked. Many volatile compounds especially,
    transcriptome and signal cascade analyses of VOC-exposed plants indicates that
    plants snoop to prime direct and indirect defenses and to hone competitive abilities.
    A diversity of emission responses have been observed from stressed plants.
    Although, the similarities have been seen in bearing environmental stress, it is also
    established fact that an emission of VOCs can be induced at any time from leaves
    of all plant species following abiotic and abiotic stress.The present challenges
    regarding changing environment which may hamper the use of VOCs in open field
    are analyzed by several scientist and solutions for a better exploitation of VOCs in
    future sustainable agriculture are envisioned.

  • Networks, Perceptions, and Migration Decisions: A Comparative Analysis of Young Migrants from the Gurage and Wolayita Areas to Addis Ababa
    Vol 1 No 2 (2019)

    In Ethiopia, rural-urban migration has been visibly dominated by the mobility of the youth. Scholarly works in the area have exhaustively identified the prominent causes as well as effects of this pattern of mobility. By going beyond the push-pull categorization, this study comparatively examines the role of social networks in the migration decision of young rural-urban migrants. Precisely, revealing the nexus between social networks, migrants’ perceptions of their home, and destination, vis-à-vis migration decision has been the concern of this inquiry. The study being of a qualitative type, interview and focus group discussion were employed as the main instruments of data collection. Having adopted a purposive sampling design, participants of the study were selected by using snowball and quota sampling techniques.

  • URBAN SOLIDWASTE MANAGEMENT: PERSPECTIVE FROM DILLA TOWN, SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA
    Vol 3 No 1 (2020)

    This article aims to examine solid waste management practices in Dilla town, Southern Ethiopia. The
    empirical data is gathered through repeated fieldwork carried out in 2017 with 120 households in Dilla
    town. Observation, questionnaires, interviews, and focus group discussions were used to obtain the primary
    data. This study has also benefited from various secondary sources. As the study shows, in Dilla, there is
    a paucity of basic infrastructure to collect and safely dispose solid wastes. As a result, scenes of scattered
    wastes, the heap of wastes, and overflowing containers are common in the town. These problems are linked
    to lack of containers, improper use of transfer stations, limited municipal waste collection service, apathy
    towards environmental sanitation, a gap in law enforcement, low municipal budgets for the sector, and
    lack of strategic planning. Thus, the existing rules and regulations of solid waste management have to be
    strengthened and enforced. There have to be mechanisms by which the government and private sectors work
    together to ensure sustainable solid waste management.

  • The Effect of Smallholder Farmers’ Managed Wetlands on Plants’ Diversity and Soil Properties in Gedeo Zone, Gedeb wereda, Southern Ethiopia.
    Vol 2 No 1 (2019)

    This study was conducted in southern Ethiopia to assess the impact of smallholder farmers’
    managed wetlands on plants diversity and soil properties. Vegetation data were collected from 60
    plots having (1m x1m) quadrats laid on five transects lines along the altitudinal gradient. Vegetation
    data were analyzed using, descriptive statistics, Sorenson’s similarity, and Shannon-Wiener
    diversity index and R. 2.14 software. Sixty composite soil samples were collected at depth of 0-15
    and 15-30 cm to study soil texture, pH, electrical conductivity, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen
    and cation exchange capacity at a distance of 1m, 100 m, 200 m and 300 m from the wetland.
    Moreover, 60 undisturbed soil core samples were collected to examine soil bulk density. Analysis of
    variance (P<0.05) was employed to test the degree of variations. Result showed 65 plant species
    were identified and grouped in 21 families. Of all families, Poaceae contains 12 species. The Sorenson’s
    similarity showed highest similarity was observed between community one and two 85%
    and lowest similarity were observed between community one and three 28%. The highest diversity
    of species was observed in community four while the highest species evenness was observed
    in community two. A soil bulk density (p =0.001) and EC significantly varied (p<0.001, p = 0.041
    respectively) with distance from wetland. Similarly, variation was observed on silt, clay, soil bulk
    density and CEC (p = 0.031, p = 0.046, p<0.001 and p<0.001 respectively) along with the soil
    depth. The soil near the wetland has shown improvements relative to the distance treatments. The
    improvement in the soil properties near the wetland was due to higher soil organic matter (SOM)
    input and less soil disturbance.

  • Informal Economy and Livelihood: Experiences of Women in Dilla Town, Southern Ethiopia
    Vol 2 No 2 (2019)

    This study investigates the nexus between the informal economy and women's livelihood improvement in developing economies like Ethiopia. Women in developing countries in general and in Ethiopian developing economy in particular face multi-dimensional challenges that include economic, political, social and cultural factors which undermine both of their agency and capability. The high incidence of poverty and family responsibility under such circumstances compels them to the informal sector where operations are far from getting policy support. The objective of this research is to investigate the role of the informal economy in improving the livelihood of women in terms of income, employment and reduction of poverty of households led by women operating in the informal sector in Dilla town.This research sought to examine the contribution of the informal sector to the livelihood improvement of women in Dilla town. The specific focus was on women informal sector operators in the street/trading areas. The study used quantitative and qualitative research methods in order to get a deeper understanding of how the informal sector is contributing to the improvement of the livelihood of women. Both qualitative and quantitative data sets were collected and analyzed. The qualitative data were analyzed by using a thematic analysis approach and the quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical summaries.

  • Effects of scattered Faidherbia albida (Del. A. Chev) tree on yield and yield components of three Cereal crops in Central Ethiopia
    Vol 2 No 1 (2019)

    Understanding tree-crop interaction is a key aspect in determining approprate tree-crop combination
    and managements. However, little is known about the influence of tree crop interaction and
    tree management on crop productivity. The study was conducted with the aim of investigating the
    effects of Faidherbia albida on yield and yield components of three cereal crops: wheat (Triticum
    aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays L.) and teff (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) in Central Ethiopian
    farmers field at Silti District.Three independent experiments were conducted using randomized
    complete block design with five replications for each experiment. The treatments consist of five
    radial distances at: 1.5m, 3.5m, 5.5m and 12.5m and contorl (25 m far from tree trunk). The yield
    and yield components data were collected from four directions and then the average was taken for
    analysis using one way ANOVA and mean separation was done using LSD at 5% significance level.
    Results showed that yield and yield component of wheat and maize were higher under and near
    the tree canopies than far from canopies. In contrast teff yield and yield component increased with
    increasing distance from tree trunk. Plant height, number of tiller per plant, spike length, total
    aboveground biomass and grain yield were all significantly higher (P < 0.05) for maize and wheat
    associated with F. albida compared to outside the canopy. Whereas, results from teff showed lower
    yield and above ground biomass close to the tree trunk compared to outside the canopy. The tree
    also used for fencing, fuelwood, fodder, construction and income generation. Therefore, the present
    study clearly showed that compatibility of maize and wheat under F. albida land use system are
    better tree crop combination design not only to enhance cereal productivity but also other tree
    benefits to farmers, while teff is incompatible to grow under F. albida land use system. Further
    study is required for the detailed species physiological response of the studied crops to shade.

  • Determinants of Farmers’ Decision to Use Improved Land Management Practice in Gindara Watershed, Southern Ethiopia
    Vol 2 No 2 (2019)

    The principal environmental problem in Ethiopia is land degradation in the form of severe soil erosion, gully formation and soil fertility loss. To overcome this problem, promoting appropriate land management technologies are best options. However, farmers’ decisions to use land management practices are determined by complex factor. Thus, this study was conducted in Gindara watershed with the objective of analyzing the status of farmers’ choice of improved land management practices and investigating determinants of farmers’ decisions to use improved land management practices. The total of 286 samples household heads were selected using randomly sampling procedure with sample size allocation procedures of probability proportional to size method. Data were gathered through questionnaires, key informant interview, field observation and focus group discussions. Data were analyzed and presented quantitatively using different statistical methods such as percentage, mean, frequency, Chi-square (categorical variables ) and (F-test for continuous variables), F-test and Chi-square test were employed to test the variation of the sample respondents towards farmers’ decisions to use improved land management practices and also used to describe the patterns of the sample data.

  • Assessment of Environmental Security from the Standpoint of Threat to National Security: The Case of Ethiopia
    Vol 1 No 5 (2019)

    Different researches have revealed that Ethiopia has a number of environmentally-related problems that threaten national security. The country loses up to 2-6 percent of annual crop production due to climate uncertainties, with drought being the main national environmental challenge. Ethiopia has a high country risk index of 7.38, one of the highest in Eastern Africa, which underlies a high level of potential risk for conflict, both within the country as well as in the region. Again, Ethiopia has an environmental score of 7.67 which is a high risk level. Generally speaking, therefore, Ethiopia is identified as a hot spot for environmental concern. The main objective of this article is to present and discuss evidence of conditions of local environmental insecurity against the background of international experiences. This is with a view to justifying whether the country should consider or not the environment as a priority in its national security policy making and strategic planning. The article recommends reappraisal of existing environmental laws to take serious cognizance of environmental security as a major component of national security. The government is called to pay greater commitment and determination by establishing environmental security departments in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate change, Ministry of Defense, and Ministry of federal affairs as well create common working platform among these ministries to provide intelligence and better readiness to combat any perceived threats emanating from the environment.

  • SELECTING SOLIDWASTE SITES USING INTEGRATED FUZZY LOGIC MODEL AND MULTI CRITERIA APPROACH IN SHASHEMENE TOWN: OROMIA REGIONAL STATE, ETHIOPIA
    Vol 3 No 1 (2020)

    Solid waste is unwanted material generated from combined residential, industrial, and commercial activities
    in a given area. Since landfills are permanent sites, they need special attention in selecting the location by
    applying an efficient method. This study employed the Fuzzy logic in combination with Weighted Linear
    Combination (WLC) methods for the selection of solid waste landfill site in Shashemene town. Moreover,
    the study used multi-criteria decision-making integrated with Geographic Information System (GIS) to
    evaluate solid waste site. The results show that the most considerable factors in site selection are the
    distance from road, river, residential areas, and commercial areas with weights of 0.242, 0.194, 0.134, and
    0.119 respectively. However, slope and height are not significant criteria. Overall, the final capability map
    generated by the weighted linear combination method represents 41.5% of the study area is not suitable for
    landfill setting, whereas low, moderate, high, and the most suitable classes cover 30.7%, 16.4%, 7.5 and
    3.9% of Shashemene town, respectively. The study also identified three best (3) sites of 25.9ha, 205.19ha, and
    268.75ha for the landfill in the town.

  • Effect of Applied Lime and Mineral Phosphorus Fertilizer on Phosphorus Transformation in Acid Soils of West Wollega, Ethiopia
    Vol 2 No 2 (2019)

    Prevalent occurrence of P deficiency in strongly acid soils is one of the major problems limiting crop production in high rainfall regions of Ethiopia where Phosphorus (P) fixation, nutrient leaching and soils erosion are common. This work investigated effect of liming and applied mineral P on the P transformation of acid soils of West Wollega, Ethiopia. To study the P transformations, P fractionation was carried out to determine distributions of P in the various P pools. The soils were categorized as strongly acidic in which the pH (H2O) values varied between 4.35 and 4.82. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soils ranged from 20 to28 cmolc kg-.1 Lime requirements to raise the soil pH to target values of 5.5, 6.5 and 7.2 varied from 4.27 to 8.18 tons CaCO3 ha-1. The total P contents of the studied soils ranged from 298.46 to 392.12 mg kg-.1 Available P( Bray I-P, Mehlich 3-P and CaCl2-P) ranged from 1.12 to 1.82 mg kg-1 and considered as very low available P content.

  • Exploring the Usability of Guangua Badiya River Water for Agricultural Purposes
    Vol 1 No 3 (2019)

    The quality of irrigation water directly influences the quality of soil and the crops grown in the soil. Quality of water used for agricultural purposes is directly proportional to the yield. The present study was conducted to find the quality of Gungua Badiya river water and its usability for agricultural purposes in Abaya district, West Gujji Zone, Oromiya Region, Ethiopia. To analyze the physicochemical parameters of the river water, nine samples were collected from upper, middle and lower parts of the river. The physicochemical parameters are analyzed to explore the usability of the river water are: pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Total dissolved solids (TDS), Calcium (Ca2+), Magnisium (Mg2+), Sodium ( Na+), Chloride (Cl- ) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC), Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and Soluble Sodium Percent (SSP). After evaluating the parameters, it is found that the river

  • ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF CROTON MACROSTACHYUS LEAVES AND PURE COMPOUND (METHYL LAURATE) ISOLATED FROM IT
    Vol 3 No 1 (2020)

    Croton macrostachyus Delil belongs to one of the largest genera of the family Euphorbiaceae, called Croton
    under the subfamily Crotonoideae. The genus Croton is ecologically prominent, and an important source
    of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties in tropics and subtropics. The objective of this
    study was to test the antibacterial property of the leaf extract of Croton macrostachyus and a lauric acid
    derivative, Methyl Laurate, isolated from it. Crude extract was obtained through phytochemical screening
    using the solvent acetone. The pure compound Methyl Laurate was isolated by a combined application of
    column chromatography, gel filtration using Sephadex LH-20 and preparative thin layer chromatography
    (prep-TLC) following crude extraction. Disk diffusion method was employed to assess antibacterial activities
    of both the crude and the pure compound on four bacterial strains viz Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia
    coli, Salmonella typhi and Shigella boydii. MIC values were also determined for each. NMR data has
    confirmed that the isolated compound is a lauric acid derivative called methyl laurate. The crude extract,
    Croton Ethyl-acetate Extract (CEaE) showed strong antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus
    and Shigella boydii with an MIC value of 6.25 mg/ml. However, the isolated compound, methyl laurate
    showed strong activities against all tested bacterial species with an MIC of 0.156 mg/ml (156 m/ml) for
    Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Shigella boydii while 0.312 mg/ml (312 mg/ml) for Escherichia
    coli. Results suggest that this plant contains phytochemicals that can combat pathogenic bacteria that might
    be the rationale for its traditional use in the external wound healing process.

  • Determinants of Rural Youth Participation in Non-Farm Income Generating Activities: the Case of East Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia
    Vol 2 No 1 (2019)

    Rural youths are forced to look for non-farm income generating activities to sustain and secure their livelihoods
    as well as to supplement their agricultural activities. However, their participation in nonfarm activities
    is influenced by various and yet empirically unidentified factors in East Gojjam Zone. Thus, the aim of the
    study was to identify factors that determine the participation of rural youths in non-farm income generating
    activities in the study area. The study drew a sample of 360 rural youths through systematic random
    sampling technique from three woredas of East Gojjam Zone. Data were collected using interview schedule,
    focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Descriptive statistics were applied to characterize the
    sample households’ demographic, economic and institutional factors. The finding of the survey indicated that
    participation in non-farm income generating activities is significantly influenced by eight variables. These
    variables are family size of the household, marital status, education level, land ownership, credit usage,
    market distance, mass media exposure and frequency of the household received extension service in a year.
    Among these variables market distance, land ownership and extension contact have negatively affected
    participation of youth in non-farm income generating activities. Agricultural extension service was skewed
    towards rural youth who engaged in agricultural activities at the expense of those who engaged in non-farm
    income generating activities. Market distance was also found to have a negative nexus with participation in
    non-farm income generating activities. Among several challenges which hinder rural youths from participating
    in non-farm income generating activities, lack of working capital and lack of working place were the
    major ones. This study concludes that rural youths in the study area faced different challenges to engage
    in non-farm income generating activities. Among those major challenges lack of working capital was the
    first bottleneck to start non-farm business in the study area. Thus, rural development strategy should give
    emphasis on promoting non-farm activities in rural areas to improve overall wellbeing of the rural youths.